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1. Iwo Jima, Japan. Candidate for a very large eruption. Affected: Japan, Philippines, coastal China
Ioto also known as Iwo-jima volcano is a triangular-shaped, flat, 8 km long and up to 4.5 wide volcanic island stretching NE-SW. It is surrounded by steep cliffs under the sea, which belong to a 9-km-wide submarine caldera. The volcano is located 1250 km south of Tokyo in the central Volcano Islands of the Izu-Marianas arc.
2. Chiltepe/Apoyeque, Nicaragua. At risk: Managua
After Iwo Jima the second most dangerous volcano has been named as Apoyeque in Nicaragua, which is next to its capital Managua, with a population of more than 2m. Apoyeque has the of an underwater eruption, which could cause a large lake tsunami, as well as the danger posed by the eruption itself. It has had major eruptions every 2000 years. The last one was 2000 years ago.
3. Campei Flegrei, Italy. At risk: Naples
In third place is Campei Flegrei near Naples in Italy, which poses even more of a threat to the city than Vesuvius. It erupts less frequently than Vesuvius, but is much closer to the city and has the potential for much larger eruptions. The western suburbs of Naples, a city of 4.4 million, are build inside its caldera.
4. Mount Aso, Japan. At risk: Kumamoto, Nagasaki
Mount Aso is the largest active volcano in Japan, and is among the largest in the world. It stands in Aso Kujū National Park in Kumamoto Prefecture, on the island of Kyushu. Its peak is 1592 m above sea level. Aso has one of the largest calderas in the world (25 km north-south and 18 km east-west). The caldera has a circumference of around 120 km (75 mi), although sources vary on the exact distance.
5. Trans Mexico Volcanic Belt, Mexico. At risk: Mexico City, Pueblo, Toluca
The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Transvolcanic Belt and locally as the Sierra Nevada is a volcanic belt that covers central-southern Mexico. Several of its highest peaks have snow all year long, and during clear weather, they are visible to a large percentage of those who live on the many high plateaus from which these volcanoes rise.
6. Gunung Agung, Indonesia. At risk: Bali
Mount Agung or Gunung Agung is a mountain in Bali, Indonesia. This stratovolcano is the highest point on the island. It dominates the surrounding area, influencing the climate.
7. Mount Cameroon (or Mongo ma Ndemi), Cameroon. At risk: Buea, Douala
Mount Cameroon is an active volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea. It is one of Africa’s largest volcanoes, rising to 4,040 metres (13,255 ft) above the coast of west Cameroon.
8. Taal, Philippines. At risk: Manilla
Taal Volcano is a complex volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It is the second most active volcano in the Philippines with 33 historical eruptions.
9. Mayon, Philippines. At risk: Legazpi
Mayon Volcano is an active volcano in the province of Albay, on the island of Luzon in the Philippines, erupting over 49 times in the past 400 years. The first record of a major eruption was witnessed in February 1616 by Dutch explorer Joris van Spilbergen who recorded it on his log in his circumnavigation trip around the world.
10. Gunung Kelud, Indonesia. At risk: Malang
Kelud is an active stratovolcano located in East Java, Indonesia. Like many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud is known for large explosive eruptions throughout its history.